Best Flooring Pets St Louis

Choosing the right floor for your home isn’t always an easy endeavor. Add pets to the equation and it gets even harder. Mix in the harsh seasons(and predisposition to flooding in some areas) here in the St. Louis area and you have a headache. Hampton Flooring gets a lot of questions from customers about their furry friends and, having a small zoo myself, I’ve done a lot of research on the subject. So we put together this list of the best flooring options for your location.

Why Does Location Matter?

If you live in the Midwest, you know what I mean when I say “It isn’t the heat. It’s the humidity.” or “If you don’t like the weather, wait a few minutes…it’ll change”. This perfectly describes our weather in St. Louis. Something most people don’t think about when selecting a floor is what that weather can do to them. For example, if you have your heart set on hardwood, expect to baby it a little more than other options, like vinyl. Even in places that don’t have to worry about flooding, the humidity levels get incredibly high and can cause water related issues. If you like to have your windows open whenever possible or tend to set the A/C to a high temp when you vacation like I do, this can cause a problem with your floors buckling. Or, as some of you may have already found out the hard way, damp carpet. Whatever flooring you choose, make sure you understand what maintenance is needed in your area to keep your floors looking their best!

Bamboo

Bamboo flooring made it’s debut in the 90’s and has quickly became a popular flooring choice. That’s not too surprising when you consider how many thousands of years bamboo has been used for everything from paper to building materials. The reasons for this is its strength, durability, and sustainability. These are the same values that make bamboo and excellent flooring choice. The strand woven bamboo planks are water resistant, making Fido’s messes easier to clean and less likely to damage your floor. Anyone who has a dog knows just how hard those nails are on your floors. Bamboo is harder than most hardwoods so it is more likely to hold up, but as always make sure you keep your dog’s nails trimmed to keep him comfortable and to help protect against scratches. The durability of bamboo makes it a great option for high traffic areas, such as the living room. If scratches do occur, the variety of unique looks of the planks hides them well, especially if you choose a lighter color. Bamboo is generally inexpensive, but pay attention to the quality of the product and where it is sourced to be confident this is the perfect eco-friendly choice for you.

Cork is another great eco-friendly choice for a home with pets. I first heard of it last year when I was looking for a floor for my daughter’s room. My friend, and flooring expert, John Hampton assured me the great reviews were true. Cork is water resistant, maybe even more so than bamboo, which is what also makes it good for plugging wine bottles. By nature it is antimicrobial and hypoallergenic. It is softer than bamboo, making it more prone to scratches, but with its unique look it also hides them well. Cork is also resealable so if you forget to do Dolly’s nails this week and she digs in, you can sand and reseal it and you’ll never know it happened. Cork provides insulation to your home, which means it tames the tap of you pups nails while helping maintain the temperature, reportedly decreasing your utility costs. This also makes it soft and warm under your feet, as opposed to bamboo or tile. The cost is close to the same as bamboo, making it an equally good flooring choice.

Luxury Vinyl

Vinyl has come a long way since we were kids. Today we have luxury planks and tiles that closely mimic the look of wood or stone. Vinyl is waterproof and durable, so if you can’t get to that puddle right away it isn’t going to cause the damage it would with most other floors. Modern vinyl flooring is also scratch and dent resistant(great for when Buddy decides your flower pot looks better on the floor than in the windowsill), but soft enough to feel warm and comfortable under your feet. As with the other options I’ve listed, vinyl is easy to clean…which is a must for a home with pets. Luxury Vinyl is the perfect alternative for a budget minded family who lives in a humid environment and has pets, but wants the stylish look of stone or hardwood. While it is a very affordable option, pay attention to the quality of the flooring as not all vinyl is created equal. The flooring professionals at Hampton Flooring can help you choose the perfect vinyl to fit your family’s needs.

Author’s Honorable Mention

Laminate flooring can’t quite compete with bamboo, cork, or vinyl but I feel it is worth mentioning. When I was shopping for my daughter’s new bedroom floor I ultimately decided on laminate, but my circumstances make it a reasonable choice whereas it may not be in your case. We were only installing it in an older child’s room, not the whole house or a high traffic area. Our dogs are also young, healthy, and are housebroken(and are rarely allowed in our little diva’s domain anyway). Now, I didn’t go into the shopping experience looking for laminate flooring because a lot of reviews say it is a bad choice with pets, but I fell in love with a product and decided to give it a try. It has worked wonderfully for us, and as long as you get a good quality plank, it is water resistant and easy to maintain as well.

Realizing the Big difference Among Acne and Rosacea

There are a amount of distinctions Amongst acne and rosacea. You really should not be puzzled with individuals two ailments. Despite the fact that it can be very challenging to point out which one particular is basic acne and which is a rosacea considering that the two influence the face, the mentioned circumstances are fully diverse issues. Consider a deeper seem at the two of individuals circumstances to recognize the treatment method possibilities greater. What you could have could not be acne, it may be rosacea.

Qualities of Acne

Acne is quite widespread individuals days, specially to teenagers. But men and women from 25 to 40 many years old can even now get this issue. The key parts of acne are papules, cysts, each whiteheads and blackheads, and a great deal far more. This can be identified all more than the physique of an impacted person, much more on the face, neck, back, and chest. For acne, large threat men and women are individuals with oily skin. When acne on sufferers types cysts and nodules, those might leave scars on the face. Absolutely, no one would like acne.

Traits of Rosacea

The Variation Amongst acne and rosacea is fairly clear. Rosacea is deemed as a relapsing and persistent situation of the skin. The most dominant characteristic of this situation is reddening of the face. It is typically likened to the face you see on drunken individuals. This situation can be passed down from parent to youngster. It mostly impacts females with ages twenty to 60 many years. When rosacea impacts a man, it is deemed to be much more extreme.

As opposed to the acne, rosacea can be discovered primarily on the face and the nose. And individuals with dry face skin can have this problem as well, not just the oily-skinned people. At the early stage of the condition, you may discover a gradual reddening of the face. This is typically mistaken as a sunburn or allergic dermatitis. One more Variation In between acne and rosacea is the scarring. As said earlier, acne can leave scars. On the other hand, rosacea will not give you scars.

The rosacea skin issue can be aggravated by a quantity of leads to. It is proposed that individuals with rosacea ought to keep away from exposure to the sun. An additional aggravating issue linked with rosacea is the consumption of also significantly spicy meals. In basic, there are 4 subtypes of rosacea. People are the papulopustular, erythematotelangiectatic, ocular and phymatous rosacea. The very first subtype offered is the 1 typically mistaken with acne. The up coming two lead to flushing. The ocular rosacea impacts the eyes of a individual, even though phymatous are discovered on the total face.

Therapy Choices

Even though, there is a key Distinction Among acne and rosacea, the therapies are generally the identical. For rosacea, it is considerable to steer clear of any triggers, like heat. As soon as it comes to drugs, you can use the acne remedies for rosacea. But if you are not sure, it is suggested that you request your dermatologist about your problem and the greatest therapy accessible for you. Do not tension your skin out, look for therapy. Use UV entire body cream also, if indicated. Figuring out the Big difference In between acne and rosacea is certainly useful for baffled men and women like you.

Acne and rosacea are two various skin circumstances.And Figuring out the Distinction Amongst acne and rosacea will assist you treat each situations much more successfully.

Home Acne Therapy Ideas

With everybody’s busy agendas, sometimes our acne Therapy regimens can take a backseat. But when you need you skin to look obvious and also to obtain that wholesome glow, involving inside a Residence blemish and pimple manage plan’s essential to producing positive that you don’t suffer outbreaks. At-Property goggles, dealing with back acne, and dealing with scars and dark marks must be portion of the epidermis care system. Right here are a few Recommendations for dealing with your acne at House.

Goggles

Facials don’t have to be boring – you dona’t have to sit down about your living area awaiting your facial mask to dry! Set the atmosphere with a few music, candle lights, or flowers to create your home really seem like a health spa so that you can obtain that effective and relaxing mood. You will be involving yourself, so allow it to be count! An excellent facial mask is vital to producing the face sense fresh and placing you inside a excellent mood. You may make a nose and mouth mask from Residence elements or acquire one that’s specifically developed to aid manage oil and outbreaks by drawing harmful particles from your skin. Any House skincare system for breakout-prone skin must add a nose and mouth mask.

Dealing with Acne Scarring

As soon as dealing with your acne scarring, it truly is essential to make positive that the skin doesn’t bust out despite the fact that You will be trying to diminish acne scarring. Once dealing with outbreaks, do only dry your skin, because of the very fact it may aggravate current scars making them appear bigger compared to what they are. A lot more than drying out the skin also can lead to the dead skin cells to aggrivate your skin and result in additional outbreaks. As soon as you’ve become your outbreaks beneath manage, it truly is time for you to target your acne scarring or hyper-pigmented spots. For acne scarring, which adjust the feel of the epidermis, you will require to see a skin doctor. For hyper-pigmented publish-acne marks, you should use some of numerous a lot more than-the-counter skin lighteners.

Back Acne Recommendations

The face isn’t the only component of the body that demands an at-House acne Therapy program. You entire body, and more importantly, your back, wants just like considerably focus as the face does – and that’s why an acne Therapy for the back at Residence is essential. As your sebaceous glands are bigger lying on your back, it is much more vulnerable to outbreaks, so it must be a diligent part of your acne skincare regimen. Not just that, however the skin lying on your back is harder, which is continuously included in your clothes, so it truly is consistently uncovered to the potential of outbreaks. Models like body washes and oral sprays produced to provide acne-fighting medications can provide you with obvious skin all a lot more than the body.

Your home is your castle, which signifies you have to be taking proper proper care of the skin even though you live in it! Creating your individual at-House acne cure program is straightforward and takes care of returns of obvious, glowing skin for many years.

Accutane Review And Safer, Cheaper And Faster Alternative

I get quite a few question about Accutane. I did some research about it and here are the answer to the most common questions I get. If you think about taking it take a moment to read through this.

How it works

Well the funny thing is that even after 20 years on the market nobody knows how it works – not even LaRoche (the company that makes it).

Sound unbelievable? I know, but that’s what it says on the patient information delivered with Accutane. It’s on the first page under “CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY” heading.

What is know that it somehow alters the DNA of skin cells. This decreases the size and output of oil glands. Less sebum, less acne. It’s just that nobody knows how it happens.

How well it works and will my acne come back

It’s not called the miracle drug for reason. It’s so popular because it often works when all the other drugs have failed.

Despite its effectiveness Accutane is still a band aid solution to acne. It does nothing to address the root cause of acne.

Because it doesn’t address the root cause it’s often a temporary solution. Most people find that their acne comes back. Some remain clear few months some few years.

Since Accutane may damage the liver and the colon the long-term effects on acne may be harmful. If it damages the liver most likely you’ll find that your acne comes back with a vengeance.

How long it takes to work

The standard treatment period is four months.

How much does Accutane cost

A lot.

The price depends on the dosage. Here are current monthly prices (on June 2007) at a licensed pharmacy in the US:

  • 10 mg; $439.99
  • 20 mg; $515.99
  • 40 mg; $566.99

The generic equivalents (Claravis, Sotret, and Amnesteem) are usually quite a bit cheaper.

So the standard four months treatment could set you back as much as 2300 dollars. And that doesn’t include the monthly visits to derm and the compulsory tests.

Is Accutane dangerous?

There is lot of controversy around this issue. First, the list of side effects is as long as California. The worst ones are suicide, severe depression and severe birth defects.

Because of possibility of severe side effects the FDA has tightened the reins on Accutane. To get it you have to jump through a series of hoops and sign a form pretty much accepting the responsibility if something happens to you. You also have to get tested every month for liver damage and blood sugar problems.

Before taking it I recommend that you take a look at Accutane side effects and dangers.

On the other hand, only a small minority gets severe side effects. For most people it’s just dries your skin, chaps your lips and possibly irritates your eyes a bit.

My story

Like most people with severe acne I had my little adventure with Accutane. To it’s credit I have to say that it got me clear.

Well, temporarily clear. After about a year from finishing the treatment my acne came back. At the end the only thing it did was to transfer acne from my back into my scalp.

I didn’t experience any horrible side effects. My skin dried up badly and started flaking off. Other side effects included dry and chapped lips, dry eyes and occasional nose bleeding. Nothing fatal, but it can get quite annoying.

Not to mention I had to pay a bomb for it.

Bottomline

Most people take Accutane out of desperation. All the other drugs have failed them and they turn to Accutane as the last resort.

If there were no other alternatives the benefits of Accutane would probably outweight the risks. But that’s not the case.

Let me tell you a secret.

The only reason you have struggled with acne is because you have been given wrong information.

Acne is actually reasonably simple to cure.

All the drugs, medicines and other acne treatment products on the market approach the problem from the wrong end. That’s why they have such a miserable track record.

Once you understand the real problem with acne getting rid of it becomes obvious. The best thing is that you don’t need Accutane, drugs or any other acne treatment products to get clear.

 

Forcing The Word Out There About Cheap Automobile Insurance

Bargains are great! Bartering for products is a common exercise all through history. The saving along with special discounts provided in the course of the post-holiday periods have always been a very popular and exciting period for a lot of us. And after that there’s coupons that happen to be a very popular way to save cash and have that extra great price.

Today firms equally at home and overseas are offering to you more alternatives at a cheaper price tag. Today we have even seen this with automobiles and other costly items as competition continues to mount. Provided these circumstances, it makes perfect sense that low-cost automotive insurance coverage ought to be accessible.

The top guys in the market have taken this quite seriously and now the smaller sized insurance agencies are starting to follow suite. Providing savings to loyal customers and low rates for sign up are right now the norm in the insurance sector.

Why don’t we Explore Discounting

Consumer specialists will tell you that inexpensive does not necessarily always indicate better. Sometimes it is legitimate with some products. Generally, explanations are available for why brands sell for as much as they generally do.

Do more cost-effective car or truck insurances offer the equivalent services? At the end of the day you need to look at what you desire as part of your insurance cover and decide whether what’s presented with low priced vehicle insurance is sufficient for you.

A straightforward check on any search engine on the web will disclose a load of insurance carriers. Now some of these will undoubtedly be well-known nonetheless others could be a bit of a mystery to you personally. Nevertheless the huge majority endorse you buy much the same solution, low-priced auto insurance. Do you turn down the unfamiliar companies simply because you don’t know them? Will you allow everybody have a reasonable chance at receiving you as a customer?

Simply seeking an insurance quote will not bind you to any particular sort of insurance plan neither in employing the services of the firm involved. This way, the two of you may evaluate if they would like to go on with the inquiry.

You’ll be able to nearly think of this just like a initial date. In the event that less expensive automobile insurance is exactly what you are interested in, it’s going to certainly be considered a good plan to get more than a single quote. Take your time and check around ahead of settling on an insurance plan or else you might not end up getting the actual greatest attainable rate.

And finally, understand that there are numerous resources on the internet for finding reviews from other insurance vendor consumers just like you. It’s time to head elsewhere if a business has a lot of bad evaluations via its former users.

My partner and I now have a real Low Cost Auto Insurance weblog coupled with a second site within Spain here Colchoneria.

Compare Car Insurance Rates Today

A lot of people hates to pay for car insurances yet it is to be owned by everyone to have it thus, it is considered to be a necessary evil for ones life. Majority of consumers have to spend time shopping around for the best prices on it. The tons of car insurance companies are now available for operation. Checking for each company demands more time yet with an overwhelming feeling. There are existing delusions saying that rates are pretty much equivalent to all across the board. The truth is, each company differs from its rates where a need for checking becomes imperative from one company to another as part of the process. It’s already possible to compare a plethora of car insurance companies at the same time.

Through the power of technology and the magic of the World Wide Web, consumers now have the opportunity to utilize tools that can check and compare car insurance quotes from one another. This process will definitely save time and money.

Personal contact from each other and from every company can now be eliminated with the help of the tools offered at the Internet allowing them to compare on multiple car insurance companies. The internet has many tools allowing you to get the best possible price at a good coverage.

Saving money for car insurance is a must for all people a seen and provided by our states trend of economic status. Saving time when shopping for is also considered high in the state where we are presented with a busy society and saving time has also been considered to be hard. The tools offered and given by the Internet allows you to kill two birds with one stone simply taking just minutes along the process yet, having and earning big savings. Spending time to shopping may allow you to compare the prices from one company to another. Cheaper prices are provided with other companies yet are seen by a large number of people to have the best possible price and company.

Car accidents are really occurring almost everyday where some are caused and brought about by catastrophic consequences while others are mere fender benders. Accidents that involve serious vehicular damage, causing harm to another person or a passenger in a vehicle, or ultimately claiming life, typically dictates the need and the use of car insurance. Without car insurance, a driver may be responsible for such accident would be left holding the bills (bills that can include the repair of another person’s vehicle, expenses for hospitalization and medical treatment, and sometimes even the cost of property damage associated with an accident, but not directly related to a vehicle). Having it is always considers smart despite the fact that most people hate the idea of shopping/ Regardless of the fact that we have to have car insurance — having it in place in the event of the unthinkable can offer peace of mind.

Curious to understand about Solar Preassembled Pumping Station? If so better go through Solar Pumping Stations right away.

Getting Low Cost Auto Insurance Quotes Online

As I was searching the net for auto insurance quotes I happened to come across an article by Crex Sky containing some quality information I thought you could use.

Auto insurance has become a costly affair in most parts of the world, more so in the United States. The situation has become graver in the recent economic meltdown. Still, you can get low cost car insurance quotes if you search a little and give yourself a little taxation. Premiums for auto insurance can vary hundreds of dollars from company to company.

The type of your car bears maximum factors. A low cost hatchback car will give you more savings in getting low cost auto insurance quotes. And if you purchased it from a previous owner, you can expect further reduction in the premium of your insurance. One thing has to be kept in mind here is that; the lowest insurance rates will not always give you the coverage you are expecting from your car insurance. You should analyze some of the quotes from different companies and get the best deal out of that. Cheaper car insurance quotes are available if you prefer not to choose the luxuries of car insurance field and settle for a basic insurance policy. Frankly speaking, most of the people are over-insured for their actual needs and search the internet for a cheap insurance.

Increasing the deductible is a great way to lower down the premium rate further. If you consider increasing it from 500 USD to 1000 USD, there will be 30% discount in APR. But you will have to pay this much amount every time your car goes to the workshop.

If you have a clean driving record for the last five years, you will enjoy some discount in your car insurance.

Accounting Course on line

This article highlights importance and understanding of Accounting Course on line.

Many of our government post have been looking for those who can perform well in the accounting department. This has opened to a lot of door for those who wanted to get a career shift or those who are simply just starting out to go to college. However, if you are one of those who wish to get an accounting course on line, you may do so by searching information on the web and see your options. You can either visit websites that offer courses related to accounting and check requirements and see to it that you will be admitted to their online classes.

You will also have to consider if the accounting course on line are offered by online schools that only offer accredited degree. This will help you in the future when you start to find employment. It will not become a problem if they see that you earned your degree from a school that has undergone an accreditation process. This is a common requirement for most employers. They only want to make sure that they hire people who have earned quality education. The curriculum that they are offering can affect a lot on how students are going to fare in their lessons. It serves as their foundation to much bigger phase of responsibility. If it is poorly engaged while they are still studying, their accounting skills will not be fully developed and shall affect future performances. But this can be avoided if you thoroughly check first the online class that you will be enrolling. It is better to be prepared this early to avoid bigger problems in the future.

Also if you are tight on a budget and cannot possibly secure money for an accounting course on line, you may still be able to avail their free finance courses. Here you will able to earn your training and still be able to find a job. If you may have observed that once you get into an online education, you will have more freedom to use your time for your other activities but this does not mean that you will already take for granted your responsibility as a student. You still need to develop that habit of really taking every lesson seriously; otherwise you will face really serious problems in the future. Granted that you have already earned the degree but you will still be tested by how well you perform your accounting skills.

Finally, as you earn your bachelor from an Accounting Course on line or from a normal school, it really doesn’t matter because you will be assessed according to your abilities and skills expected of an accountant. If you cannot meet the employers expectations, the university you came no matter how renowned it is, will no longer matter. By the end of the day, it is still going to be you who will save the day and not where you came from, but it is how much you have learned and how well you could apply it.

Technical School Vs Traditional College

When choosing between attending a technical school or a traditional college or university there are many factors that should be considered. For example, the location of either type of school can make it attractive. If a student has limited resources and needs to live at home while attending school a location within a short commuting distance can be very important. Perhaps the most important consideration is the type of career a student wishes to have after completing his or her studies.

A technical school most often provides a more limited curriculum, and as the name implies, a more technical education. This type of education is valuable because it can lead to good employment. Often technical schools have developed strong relationships with employers and have a good track record of getting students into jobs shortly after they complete their studies. In most cases a technical school offers a two-year or associate’s degree. The classes that are taught are specific to the field of study and are intended to be applied. For this reason people who graduate from these schools often become technicians or might perform clerical work in accounting.

A technical school can be a good choice for students who are already working and need to continue to work to support a family as well as pay for their education. These schools often offer evening courses and online classes at times that work well for this type of student. A degree from a technical school might enhance employment opportunities for students. Also, the class size in a technical school is usually smaller, which provides students with a more personalized education and more interaction with the teachers.

Technical schools also have some disadvantages. For example, an accounting course from a technical school will cover more of the mechanics and less of the theory behind the material covered. Also, for those who wish to obtain a professional certification such as being a Certified Public Accountant, the technical school degree is not sufficient. Candidates for the CPA Exam must have a bachelor’s degree with a minimum number of hours in accounting that is determined by each state. Additionally, hours earned at a technical school might not be likely to transfer to another school or university. Students who start at a technical school and decide to transfer to a college might find that they must take most classes over again, a waste of time and money.

A traditional college or university provides a good education for some students who wish to work in the accounting field. For those desiring certification a minimum of a bachelor’s degree is required, with at least 30 hours in accounting. As in Texas, some states might require that a minimum of 15 accounting hours be taken on campus. Those students seeking high-prestige employment, perhaps in a public accounting firm, should also carefully evaluate the reputation of the college or university. It is usually easier to get a job from some prestigious firms if you also attend a college that is highly ranked.

One primary difference between a technical school and a college is that a college education is intended to develop a student’s ability to think and resolve problems. A technical school focuses more on specific detailed studies of subjects directly related to the field. At first glance it might seem that some classes are superfluous and that students of accounting shouldn’t have to take them. For example, history, English literature, and speech classes could seem unnecessary. However, professional accountants working in public accounting or private companies must be able to communicate clearly, in proper business English, and report on problems, proposed solutions, and business activities. Classes like English and speech help students to communicate more clearly.

There are some possible disadvantages to attending a college or university. Often class sizes (especially at larger universities) in the beginning accounting course can be quite large, with 100 or more students. This can make it more difficult for some students to get help with difficult topics, ask questions during class, and get personalized instruction. Usually the classes after basic accounting are smaller, and students have more opportunities to interact with professors. Some colleges and universities are also quite expensive; however, financial aid might also be available.

Each student must choose the type of education and school that best suits his or her needs. It is wise to research all options. This can be done by searching the Internet, asking friends who have attended a school, speaking with a guidance counselor, and visiting the schools you are interested in.

Stand Alone Accounting Course Types

Depending on a student’s needs, there is a variety of stand-alone accounting courses available. These range from a management accounting course intended to help business managers understand and manage business processes to very detailed courses on debits and credits. A course on debits and credits explains the double-entry bookkeeping method and how to record transactions using debits and credits. An accounting course such as one in accounts receivable teaches students about recording transactions related to sales that result in customers owing a company money.

Accounting principles courses teach the basics of accounting, from recording the original transaction to balancing ledgers and generating basic financial reports or statements. This type of course is usually the first one required for students who seek an accounting degree. Bookkeeping is an accounting course that focuses in detail on recording transactions. Twenty or thirty years ago, most smaller businesses recorded transactions by hand on paper specially printed with columns and bound into ledgers. Now it is more common for even small businesses to use computer-based software, and the desktop-computer software is affordable.

College Accounting Course Types

One accounting course that is especially valuable for business managers is the cash flow statement course. Understanding the difference between income and cash flow is critical for business managers, as cash flow can strongly impact business operations.

College accounting courses are designed for several different types of students. Principles of Accounting I & II are often required for all students who wish to graduate with a degree in business fields, including marketing, finance, and business administration. Several years of classes in accounting are required for those who want to earn a degree in accounting. Graduate students who do not have an undergraduate business degree might also have to take one or more college-level accounting courses.

An accounting course at the college level differs from one taught at a technical or business college in several ways. College-level courses often include more information about the theory that underlies accounting principles and practices. College-level classes can also require more individual study and problem-solving. Also, classes in universities can be quite large, with more than 100 students. Individual instruction and help are more difficult to obtain when students are in this type of large class. Especially at large universities, frequently college-level classes in accounting use lectures taught by professors on video and have discussion periods led by graduate teaching assistants. These graduate students are working toward a master’s or doctorate and are paid a small stipend to help with their educational expenses.